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Shared e‑scooters reduce carbon emissions, finds leading German research institute Fraunhofer ISI

Even in cities like Paris with low car use, e-scooters have a net-impact of reducing carbon emissions. It is a result of Lime reducing emissions from its hardware and service by 84% in just three years, with its Gen4 e-scooters now more sustainable than public transit, traditional bikeshare and electric cars

A new study from leading German research institute Fraunhofer ISI finds that shared e-scooters help to reduce carbon emissions within city transportation networks. Fraunhofer researchers surveyed Lime riders in spring 2022 across six cities globally, including Stockholm, Paris, Melbourne, Berlin, Seattle, and Dusseldorf, asking what mode they would have taken on their most recent trip if an e-scooter or e-bike were not available – often called “mode shift.” This mode shift data was then fused with a lifecycle analysis of Lime’s latest Gen4 e-bikes and e-scooters, measuring the service’s carbon footprint from cradle to grave.

The Fraunhofer researchers measured whether Lime scooters replace enough high-emission car, taxi and ride hail trips, and higher-emitting forms of public transportation to offset the carbon impacts of replacing walking or lower carbon transportation. In each city studied, researchers found that shared e-scooters reduce more carbon emissions than they emit.

Net carbon impact per kilometer of Lime Generation 4 shared e-scooters

To date, research on the carbon emissions impact of e-scooters has been mixed, with some earlier studies finding that e-scooters were a net-contributor of carbon emissions. However, previous research used lifecycle emissions data from older generations of e-scooter hardware and operational practices, and therefore failed to capture the current state of the industry. Over the past three years, shared micromobility companies like Lime have made substantial improvements in new hardware and operational practices, such as longer-lasting vehicles with modular design, swappable batteries and electric operational vehicles.

The most recent lifecycle analysis of Lime’s Gen4 e-scooter, conducted by global sustainability consultancy Anthesis, found the company’s lowest carbon impact yet–producing just 19.7g CO2/passenger km traveled in Paris and 25.5g CO2/passenger km in Dusseldorf. In the five years since Lime began operating shared e-scooters and e-bikes, it has consistently improved its lifecycle emissions, resulting in a 84% drop in CO2/passenger km traveled.

Reductions in shared e-scooter life cycle carbon emissions over time

Some of the steps Lime has taken to decarbonize its service include:

  • Extending the lifespan of e-scooters by making them modular, more durable, and fully repairable, resulting in less waste and fewer new hardware orders.

  • Introducing swappable batteries, as well as larger batteries to reduce operational impacts and increase vehicle availability for riders.

  • Transitioning operations fleet to electric vehicles, including electric vans and e-cargo bikes.

  • Powering all warehouses and facilities on 100% renewable energy

As a result, today’s Gen4 Lime e-bikes and e-scooters are less carbon intensive than public buses, subways and electric vehicles.

Comparison of per-kilometer life cycle carbon emissions across many different common modes of urban transportation

“These findings show how far shared micromobility has come in our work to decarbonize transportation,” said Andrew Savage, VP for Sustainability at Lime. “They demonstrate to city policymakers the role shared e-scooters can play as an integral part of a lower-carbon urban future. Our work is just beginning and we will continue to be relentless in decarbonizing our service to help meet the urgent threat of climate change.”

The report found that greatest carbon savings from mode shift occurs when riders choose e-scooters instead of taking a taxi or ride hailing service. Through Lime’s partnership with Uber, riders can book a Lime e-scooter or e-bike through the Uber app, encouraging even greater mode shift. Riders who booked Lime e-scooters via the Uber ride hailing app were not surveyed by the Fraunhofer researchers, making it likely the carbon savings of Lime’s service is even greater than detailed in this report.

The report’s findings demonstrate the impact of Lime’s carbon reduction efforts and Ride Green commitments, first laid out in 2020. Aligned with the company’s mission to build a future where transportation is shared, affordable and carbon-free, Lime set an industry-first science-based target across the entire business, including its upstream and downstream emissions. This target was independently-validated by the Science Based Targets Initiative (SBTi), becoming the only validated target in micromobility across Scope 1, 2 and 3 emissions. Lime’s validated target and path to be net zero by 2030, without the use of carbon offsets, is consistent with the Paris Accord goal of limiting climate warming to 1.5C. Lime’s 2021 carbon inventory demonstrated a 64% reduction of emissions from its baseline year of 2019, tracking ahead of the science-based commitment.

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